In the U.S., pharmaceuticals are shielded from competition through patents and other regulation. All countries in the TPP already provide 20 years of patent protection for traditional pharmaceuticals through previous international agreements. But in the U.S., biologics are also granted a monopoly for 12 years after they receive marketing approval, whether they have an active patent or not. Pharmaceutical companies say this is necessary to promote innovation (though the Federal Trade Commission disagrees and says it will likely hurt consumers), and the U.S. pushed hard for these same terms in the TPP.
Diesbezüglich siehe auch: The Economist - A question of utility